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Daniele Malomo and Matthew J. DeJong

Daniele Malomo, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, QC, Canada,
Matthew J. DeJong, Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 777 Davis Hall, Berkeley, California, United States,


A new Macro-Distinct element model (M-DEM) for the low-cost analysis of both in-plane, outof- plane and combined failure mechanisms of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures is
presented in this work. According to the M-DEM, which is the first macroelement model ever implemented in a discontinuum framework, Finite Element (FE) homogenized macro-blocks are connected by discrete spring interfaces, which accounts for shear/tension damage. Compressive failure, instead, is modeled within the FE macro-blocks, whose layout is determined a priori as a
function of the masonry bond pattern. To validate the proposed modeling strategy, previous experimental tests on reduced and full-scale URM specimens are selected and simulated. Both
static and dynamic loading protocols are considered, as well as a variety of different masonry types, boundary conditions, vertical surcharges, and confinement levels. The results indicate that the M-DEM can satisfactorily reproduce the behavior of in-plane and out-of-plane-loaded URM components, as well as their response under combined actions, in a reasonable timeframe, in terms of both force-displacement relationship, dissipated energy and failure modes.

KEYWORDS: discrete element method, finite element method, macroelement, in-plane, out-ofplane, unreinforced masonry


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