7th Canadian Masonry Symposium Papers - Full List

This page contains a full list in plain text form containing every single paper presented as part of the 7th Canadian Masonry Symposium. To quickly find what you are looking for, try using the “find on page” function in your browser by pressing CTRL+F to jump down the page. Any text appearing in the paper’s title, first 30 words of the abstract, or an author’s name can be searched at this location.

  • PROPERTIES OF GROUT UNDER UNIAXIAL AND TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION
    BY P. GUO AND R.G. DRYSDALE ABSTRACT A total of 166 grout specimens made using 4 types of moulds were tested in uniaxial and triaxial compression. Five lateral confining pressures ranging from 0 to 14 MPa (2 ksi) were applied to weak, medium and strong grout specimens. Both static and…
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  • DEVELOPING MASONRY TECHNOLOGY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION BASED ON CANADIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
    J.E. LAWRYSHYN ABSTRACT To be able to grasp the essence of the present socio-economic problems facing most of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, it is necessary to look at the political system that controlled and dictated, for almost a century, practically every facet of civic life. Although the Soviets…
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  • PREVENTION OF PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE IN MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL MASONRY BUILDINGS FOLLOWING GAS EXPLOSION
    JOHN SPRINGFIELD ABSTRACT Development of the Guideline on resistance to progressive collapse, an Ontario requirement for high rise residential buildings with in-suite natural gas supply, is summarized. Noteworthy is the requirement to consider the failure of more than a single member. Included is a design pressure formula for window vented…
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  • ABOUT BUILDING DATING AND THE EVALUATION OF MASONRY’S STRENGTH IN PALAZZO PIANCIANI, SPOLETO, ITALY
    ROMUALDO MONTAGNA ABSTRACT It is common knowledge that restoring a building involves not only the physical rebuilding of its parts, but also the identification and conservation of the peculiarities of each building as a first stage. Therefore, the process leading to the identification of the main features becomes important and…
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  • THIN STAINLESS STEEL FLAT-JACKS: CALIBRATION AND TRIALS FOR MEASUREMENT OF IN-SITU STRESS AND ELASTICITY OF MASONRY
    BY R.C. DE VEKEY SUMMARY The flat jack is a flat flexible envelope which is filled with hydraulic fluid and can be pressurised using a pump and used to generate small movements in structures and apply substantial forces. Suitable arrangements allow the measurement of compressive stress in members and the…
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  • COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF TUFF BRICKS IN DIFFERENT TEST CONDITIONS FINAL RESULTS
    GIORGIO FRUNZIO CAMILLA D'ONOFRIO AND MICHELA MONACO ABSTRACT This paper is the final part of an experimental research program aimed at collecting information about the most used masonry stone in the Neapolitan area, the yellow tuff. The influence of shape, dimentions, moisture, friction between testing machine platen and specimens on…
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  • FLEXURAL RIGIDITY OF CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS
    G.G. ARIDRU AND J.L. DAWE ABSTRACT An evaluation of axial and flexural rigidities of concrete masonry walls is very important for calculations involving axial and ultimate moment capacities as well as lateral deflections. Currently approximate and empirical methods are used to evaluate these parameters and to date there is no…
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  • A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MASONRY COMPRESSION TEST DATA
    R.C.DE VEKEY ABSTRACT In order to comment intelligently on the methods of test to be adopted as the reference methods for the CEN (European) standard on compression strength measurement for masonry, some data has been analysed. Three main questions are addressed - (1) whether 3 or 5 replicates should be…
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  • CREEP TESTS ON CLAY MASONRY PRISMS: APPARATUS AND SOME INITIAL RESULTS
    N.G. SHRIVE AND D. TILLEMAN ABSTRACT The apparatus for a comprehensive set of creep tests on clay masonry prisms is described. The apparatus was designed to be self-sufficient should components fail in that the tests are intended to last for a minimum of fifteen years. Three series of tests have…
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  • INFLUENCE OF BLOCK GEOMETRY AND GROUT TYPE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BLOCK MASONRY
    M. STEADMAN, R.G. DRYSDALE AND M.M. KHATTAB ABSTRACT Thirty-nine prisms were prepared and tested under uniaxial compression to investigate the effect of grout on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry. The variables considered included the block geometry as well as the grout type and strength. Blocks with pear…
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  • CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF MASONRY PRISMS: FAILURES AND REMEDIES
    JOHN CHRYSLER ABSTRACT The Unifom Building Code (UBC) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) contain criteria for prism testing methods to determine the strength properties of pre-construction, construction and in-place masonry. Successful prism test results verify that a masonry building system meets the design standards, but prism failures…
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  • THE RESEARCH OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE-BRICK COMPOSITE WALLS UNDER VERTICAL LOADING CONDITION
    YAHAN SHONG AND FEI WANG ABSTRACT In this paper, the research work in the field of composite masonry are reviewed. The formulae of predicting load-carrying capacity of the composite masonry under horizontal or vertial loading condition are summed up. Based on the experimental results and the analysis results of finite…
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  • MASONRY PRISM GROUTED COLLAR JOINT SHEAR TESTS
    JAMES COLVILLE, CLAYFORD T. GRIMM AND AMDE M. AMDE ABSTRACT Composite structural action can only be obtained in multiwythe masonry wall construction if the masonry wythes are adequately interconnected and full shear transfer occurs across the collar joint. The filling of a collar joint by pressure injected grout through one…
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  • COMPOSITE WALLS
    R.M. PACHOLOK, P.ENG. AND A.E. ELWI, P.ENG. ABSTRACT Composite walls are defined as multi-wythe walls in which the wythes are tied together by connectors, filled collar joints, bonding units, or other means to ensure shear transfer between the wythes and effective composite action. These types of walls have been used…
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  • THE PULLOUT OF TIES FROM BRICK VENEER
    E.F.P. BURNETT, M.A. POSTMA ABSTRACT This paper documents a study to assess the likely performance of masonry ties in tensile pullout from day masonry. Four different proprietary ties were tested, namely a Z-tie, a straight dovetail, a corrugated dovetail and the Helifix HRT60. The test procedure for most of the…
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  • NEW STYLE VENEER TIE ANSWERS THE NEED FOR STIFFNESS AND ADJUSTABILITY
    MARIO J. CATANI, P.E., MAX L. PORTER, PHD, P.E, KENNETH G. BANKS ABSTRACT Generally, cavity wall ties and veneer anchors need to provide a high degree of stiffness perpendicular to the plane of a wall while being flexible enough to accommodate in-plane differential movements between the wythes. Neither the Canadian…
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  • THE DYNAMIC BUFFER ZONE
    PAVLA MCGRATH AND MICHEL J. PERREAULT ABSTRACT Following a study of the 60 year old Canada Life Building in Toronto, Ontario, it was determined that the lack of insulation and relatively low humidity levels of interior air kept the stone cladding warm and dry. The growing need for modern environmental…
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  • CONTROLLING SOUND TRANSMISSION WITH CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTIONS
    A.C.C. WARNOCK ABSTRACT This paper summarizes information on sound transmission through concrete blocks, unfinished or with gypsum board attached in various ways. The importance of block porosity and the depth of the cavity behind added drywall is illustrated. Methods for dealing with the detrimental resonance involving the blocks, the gypsum…
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  • VERY LOW EMISSIONS CORDWOOD COMBUSTION IN MASONRY HEATERS AND MASONRY FIREPLACES – EARLY RESULTS WITH POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS
    NORBERT SENF ABSTRACT Woodsmoke emissions are an increasing health concern in populated areas with certain geographical features. Site-built open fireplaces now face severe restrictions in a number ofjurisdictions. The author and colleague 1. Frisch have conducted emissions and performance tests on several masonry appliances over a period of three years.…
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  • NEW BRICK ARCH HIGHWAY BRIDGES
    STEPHEN W. GARRITY AND PAUL H. GREGORY ABSTRACT Engineers are under increasing pressure to design new highway works with low operating costs and minimal environmental impact. As a result, attempts are being made to develop new forms of bridge construction with lower maintenance requirements and greater aesthetic appeal than many…
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  • LOAD BEARING MASONRY FOR ECONOMY, TOUGHNESS, REDUNDANCY AND BEAUTY
    MICHAEL HOGAN ABSTRACT This paper addresses the generally neglected question of how a designer takes into account the possibility of a local structural failure. Can a local failure lead to progressive collapse? Is an engineer obliged to consider extremely rare loads (i.e. a column hit by a car, plane, etc.…
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  • TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF POLYMER MODIFIED MORTARS
    AMDE M. AMDE, JAMES COLVILLE AND MATHEW A. MILTENBERGER ABSTRACT An experimental program was performed to investigate ways of improving the bond strength of masonry mortars through the use polymer additives, so that more efficient use of masonry could be realized. Results from a clay brick masonry mortar bond strength…
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  • ADAPTATION OF A MASONRY UNIT MANUFACTURED FROM WASTE PRODUCTS TO MODERN PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
    ARIE HUIZER AND ROBERT L. DAY ASBTRACT Pulverised coal fly-ash and non-returnable glass products have been combined to produce a masonry unit with properties that satisfied the SW (severe weather) rating as outlined in CAN/CSA-A82.1-M87. In addition to the utilisation of two environmentally unfriendly products, energy savings because of low…
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  • THE DOCUMENTATION AND POTENTIALS OF ALTERNATIVE FILLERS IN CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY UNITS
    PETER F. SMITH AND VERA. A STRAKA ABSTRACT Currently there is no concise source of information pertammg to the use of alternative fillers in concrete masonry units. This extends from a lack of information concerning commercially available alternative filler block types. This paper summarizes the information on different types of…
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  • TECHNICAL, ECONOMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIABILITY OF MASONRY GROUT MADE OF RECYCLED MASONRY
    M. SHOKRY RASHWAN AND SIMAAN M. ABOURIZK ABSTRACT An extensive study was conducted to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of using grout made of recycled concrete blocks and clay brick. The recycled material was obtained from waste generated on construction sites. The waste was then processed into aggregate…
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  • SHRINKAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE BLOCKS
    ROBERT G. DRYSDALE AND MAGDY M. KHATTAB ABSTRACT Shrinkage strain data from tests of blocks from twenty-four block plants in Ontario shows that the majority of shrinkage occurs during later stages of drying. From a fully saturated state, it is generally necessary to remove much more than half of the…
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  • CASE STUDIES DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF REINFORCED BRICK VENEER
    JOHN G. TAWRESEY, P.E. ABSTRACT For the past 15 years, a new system for installing brick on the exterior of buildings has been developing in the northwest United States. The system is derived from the convergence of two common uses of brick masonry. The first is reinforced brick masonry panels,…
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  • MASONRY VENEER WITH STEEL STUD STRUCTURAL BACKING
    SCOT MCCAVOUR AND DAVID LAIRD ABSTRACT This paper discusses the design of a masonry veneer with a steel stud structural backing. The design requirements of C5A 5304.1-94 "Masonry Design for Buildings (Limit States Design)" are discussed. A design example is given for a typical 2400 high infill stud wall with…
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  • TESTS OF TALL CAVITY WALLS SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOADING
    R. WANG, A.E. ELWI, M.A. HATZINIKOLAS AND J.WARWARUK ABSTRACT This paper presents a full scale test program on reinforced slender shear connected cavity walls subjected to an axial compressive eccentric loading. In total, nine walls were tested. All specimens were of partially grouted and reinforced, all were constructed with 190…
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  • DEFLECTION OF REINFORCED MASONRY WALL UNDER OUT-OF-PLANE LOADS
    BECHARA E. ABBOOUD, XIN LU, AND IVAN J. BECICA ABSTRACT Although deformation is an important criterion in strength design procedures, only a limited number of experimental studies have been performed to evaluate the deformation of reinforced masonry walls under out-of-plane loads. The accuracy of the currently proposed methods for predicting…
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  • A TENSILE BOND STRENGTH TEST FOR COMPOSITE MASONRY/CONCRETE
    STEPHEN W.GARRITY ABSTRACT A simple test for measuring the tensile bond strength of the interface of composite masonry/concrete construction is described. The results of tests on sixty seven cores taken from four reinforced brickwork beams are reported and the test method is reviewed. Although originally developed as part of a…
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  • REVIEW OF HISTORIC STONE MASONRY PROPERTIES
    G.T. SUTER AND X.SONG ABSTRACT Selected properties of historic mortars and stone as well as mechanical properties of stone masonry under compressive, tensile and shear loadings are summarized in this paper. [ult_buttons btn_title="Read Full Paper" btn_link="url:http%3A%2F%2Fcanadamasonrydesigncentre.com%2Fdownload%2F7th_symposium%2FF-25.pdf|title:Open%20Full%20PDF|target:%20_blank" btn_align="ubtn-center" btn_size="ubtn-normal" btn_title_color="#aa0005" btn_bg_color="#ededed" btn_hover="ubtn-center-dg-bg" btn_anim_effect="ulta-grow" icon_size="32" btn_icon_pos="ubtn-sep-icon-at-left" btn_border_size="1" btn_radius="3" btn_shadow_size="5" btn_shadow_click="enable" tooltip_pos="left" btn_bg_color_hover="#840004"…
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  • A CASE STUDY IN THE ASSESSMENT AND REPAIR OF FREEZE-THAW DAMAGE TO TTW BRICK WALLS
    SALLY THOMPSON, PETER HALSALL AND CHRIS LOVE ABSTRACT This paper describes the assessment of masonry deterioration and the repair program at three essentially identical buildings with walls constructed of 1TW brick. Each building has six storeys with a combination of flat and sloped roofs. Extensive brick deterioration and leakage into…
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  • BRICK VENEER/STEEL STUD WALLS – A REPAIR SOLUTION
    H. KELLER, P.ENG. AND T.W.J. TRESTAIN, P.ENG ABSTRACT The paper describes the investigation and subsequent repair work carried out on the brick veneer/steel stud masonry walls of a highrise apartment building in Calgary, Alberta. The paper deals with the original design details, with workmanship deficiencies and with the selected repairs.…
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  • REPAIR OF FAULTS IN MASONRY BUILDING ENVELOPES
    GERALD R. GENGE ABSTRACT The assessment of the needs for repair of masonry requires that the operational and financial needs of the owners of the building be addressed in addition to the technical requirements to address the distress. This paper presents a system for organizing the thought process for investigation…
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  • DETERIORATION OF MASONRY CAUSES AND PREVENTION
    GINA P. CODY ABSTRACT Increasing attention is being focused on the durability of the materials forming cladding assemblies. This attention is a direct result of the very high costs now associated with the repair and maintenance of our portfolio of ageing buildings and by the widely differing philosophies applied by…
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  • INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION – YOU GET WHAT YOU INSPECT – NOT NECESSARILY WHAT YOU EXPECT
    GARTH W. MILLER ABSTRACT To ensure that a masonry project is constructed in the most proficient manner, diligent inspection must be undertaken. Inspection takes the form of knowledgeable examination of the prepared drawings and specification; the investigation through an inquiring mind to ensure that the construction details and specifications can…
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  • ACCOUNTABILITY – THE PRICE YOU PAY FOR QUALITY WORK
    HOWARD L. DROZ, AIA INTRODUCTION Quality dynamics starts with knowi1lg (1) what you want to build; (2) how to obtain materials; and (3) how to construct as intended. This can be achieved by foilowi1lg simple steps and focusing attention on the details related to the appropriate products and systems involved…
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  • THE MASONRY CONSTRUCTION STANDARD – WHAT’S NEW?
    MICHAEL R. SHIRLAW, P.ENG. ABSTRACT The 1994 edition of CSA Standard A371, Masonry Construction for Buildings, is the third edition of this document since its introduction in 1980. The Technical Committee on Masonry Construction thoroughly reviewed the content of the Standard in close collaboration with the Committees on Masonry Design…
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  • INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE DEMONSTRATES ‘MAMA,’ A NEW MECHANICAL DEVICE TO LIFT HEAVY MASONRY UNITS, REDUCE STRAIN AND FATIGUE
    ROBERT J. BEINER ABSTRACT The International Masonry Institute (IMI) has developed and demonstrated a prototype of a new, electronically controlled mechanical device it is calling a Mechanically Assisted Mason's Aid, or " MAMA," that enables bricklayers to easily lift, handle and set into walls masonry units that weigh up to…
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  • EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY UNDER CONCENTRATED LOADS
    M.I. SOLIMAN, A.H. HOSNY, S.M. KHALED AND M.M. KHATTAB ABSTRACT A total of 12 panels were tested to investigate the behaviour of concrete block masonry under concentrated loads in terms of the crack pattern, the mode of failure and the ultimate load. The panels were equally divided into three groups,…
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  • THE FLEXURAL DESIGN OF POST-TENSIONED HOLLOW CLAY MASONRY
    KELVIN J. GRAHAM AND ADRIAN W.PAGE ABSTRACT Prestressed single skin clay or concrete hollow masonry is being used in Australia for the construction of low rise buildings in high wind areas to enhance its flexural performance. The level of prestress controls the cracking and the serviceability performance of the masonry,…
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  • PREFABRICATED FACADE ELEMENTS IN PRESTRESSED MASONRY
    A.J. HOGESLAG EN D.R.W. MARTENS ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research on the possibilities of prefabricated facade elements in prestressed masonry. Deformation behaviour and flexural strength have been studied by means of bending tests. The bond strength between reinforcement and masonry has been determined…
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  • CORROSION PROTECTION OF PRESTRESSING TENDONS FOR MASONRY
    STEPHEN W. GARRITY ABSTRACT The consequences of two or three tendons becoming severely corroded in a prestressed masonry structure are likely to be more serious than if a few bars of a comparable reinforced masonry structure were to corrode. A cautious approach to protecting prestressing tendons from corrosion therefore appears…
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  • EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SLENDER PRESTRESSED BRICK WALLS
    EDWARD M. LACIKA, ROBERT G. DRYSDALE ABSTRACT This paper reports on an investigation of the out-of-plane structural behaviour of slender prestressed (restrained tendon) brick walls. In particular, the interactions between slenderness, axial load, and prestress are discussed. At all slenderness levels, the prestressed walls supported axial loads greater than those…
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  • EFFECT OF FABRICATION AND CURING ON BOND STRENGTH OF MASONRY
    JOHN M. MELANDER AND JOHN CONWAY ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the relationship between the bond strength of masonry assemblies and fabrication and curing techniques used to construct and condition test assemblies. The study was conducted using concrete masonry brick units and clay masonry units. Variables investigated included: altering the…
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  • LABORATORY STUDIES OF MORTAR FOR HISTORIC MASONRY: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
    G.T. SUTER, M.L. THOMSON AND L. FONTAINE ABSTRACT Over the past five years, a number of laboratory studies have been carried out to help define practical and durable mortars for the conservation of Canadian historic masonry assets. This paper provides an overview of the work performed on mechanical properties and…
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  • QUALITATIVE MODELLING OF WATER LOSS OF FRESH MORTARS IMMEDIATELY AFTER BRICKLAYING
    CASPAR J.W.P. GROOT ABSTRACT The transport of water from mortar to brick, occurring immediately after bricklaying, may be approximated by modelling (i) the brick according to the Capillary Pressure Theory for Porous Solid Media and (ii) the mortar according to Pressure Theories for Particle Systems containing Liquids (Schubert, Luikov). Using…
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  • DURABILITY OF 16TH CENTURY MORTAR: ARCTIC CANADA VERSUS INLAND IRELAND
    M.L. THOMSON AND S.J. BASTEN ABSTRACT The durability of mortar is dependent on its physical properties, as well as the environment to which it is exposed. Mortars taken from stone structures in Arctic Canada and inland Ireland, dating from the mid 1500's, are examined using petrographic and scanning electron microscopy,…
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  • THE HISTORY OF MASONRY MORTAR IN AMERICA (1720-1995)
    JOHN P. SPEWEIK ABSTRACT The evolution of masonry mortar over the last 275 years in America has been very interesting. Inventions and discoveries over this time period, in both Europe and America, directly impacted the way mortar is manufactured and used in today's construction industry. Among the notable discoveries were…
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  • THE BRICK-VENEER SCREENED WALL
    ERIC F.P. BURNETT AND JOHN F. STRAUBE ABSTRACT A number of publications have been produced and circulated that make design recommendations for the so-called pressure-equalized rainscreen (PER) portion of brick veneer wall systems. While these recommendations are not necessarily consistent or comprehensive, they do provide a set of consensus guidelines…
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  • PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF A BRICK VENEER/STEEL STUD WALL SYSTEM
    JACQUES ROUSSEAU, HEINZ KELLER, AND STEVEN LAVIOLETTE ABSTRACT The widespread use of brick veneer/steel stud (BV/SS) wall systems over the last 20 years has preceded the development of adequate design and construction standards. As a result, concerns have arisen in the construction industry over the long-term safety, serviceability and durability…
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  • PERFORMANCE OF ANCHORED VENEER ON STUD BACKUP
    JOHN CHRYSLER ABSTRACT The provision for veneer cladding has been in the Uniform Building Code (UBC) since the first edition, published in 1927. The concept of masonry veneer is simple, yet the performance of masonry veneer can be marginal if basic, fundamental guidelines are ignored. In this paper, successful attachment…
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  • COMPARISON OF BACKUP WALLS FOR ANCHORED BRICK VENEER
    CASE STUDIES OF BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS WITH BACKUP WALLS OF STEEL STUDS, CONCRETE MASONRY, AND CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE LINDA BROCK ABSTRACT The selection of the proper backup wall is often seen as the prerequisite for a long lasting and low maintenance brick veneer cladding. Using case studies of anchored brick veneer…
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  • ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF MASONRY CAVITY WALLS
    CLAYFORD T. GRIMM, P.E. ABSTRACT For the past few years a task comittee of ASTM Comittee C15.05 has been developing a Standard Guide for Architectural Design of Masonry Cavity Walls. This paper provides excerpts of he current draft of that proposed standard. It is provided here for public review and…
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  • LIMIT STATES DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES BASED ON CSA S304.1 USING MICRO-COMPUTERS
    C.K. SEAH AND J.L. DAWE ABSTRACT The micro-computer software developed herein is intended to relieve design engineers of laborious computations inevitable in the iterative masonry design process. Computations may be performed for the design and analysis of all commonly occurring masonry elements consisting of either concrete block or clay brick…
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  • REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY PILASTER DESIGN AIDS
    PAUL G. GURLEY AND RUSELL H. BROWN ABSTRACT Reinforced masonry pilasters are often used in masonry construction to resist concentrated loads or to serve as vertical reaction beams for walls spanning horizontally. Their use in large warehouse buildings is both practical and economical. Efficient design of reinforced masonry pilasters with…
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  • MORE MASONRY CAVITY WALLS DETAILS
    CLAYFORD T. GRIMM, P.E. ABSTRACT This paper is a continuation of the effort that was begun in the articles on "Architectural Design of Masonry Cavity Walls" and Masonry Cavity Wall Details" both of which appear elsewhere in these proceedings. This series of papers id an attempt to reduce the number…
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  • MASONRY CAVITY WALLS DETAILS
    CLAYFORD T. GRIMM. P.E. ABSTRACT These eleven cavity wall details illustrate some of the principles presented in the paper in this publication titled "Architectural Design of Masonry Cavity Walls." These details were prepared with the hope of reducing architectural design errors that account for about half of all masonry failures.…
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  • BEYOND CAD: THE ENRICHMENT OF COMMUNICATION TEACHING MASONRY USING INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION
    TERRI MEYER BOAKE ABSTRACT Technical education, with respect to its content and methods of delivery, must constantly be reevaluated in an effort to meet the changing demands being made on it by the architectural and engineering professions, by technology by the state of our environment and by the students. The…
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  • BEYOND CAD: THE ENRICHMENT OF COMMUNICATION TEACHING MASONRY USING INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION
    TERRY MEYER BOAKE ABSTRACT Technical education, with respect to its content and methods of delivery, must constantly be reevaluated in an effort to meet the changing demands being made on it by the architectural and engineering professions, by technology, by the state of our environment and by the students. The…
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  • FLEXURAL CAPACITIES OF CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS WITH OPENINGS
    ANDREW C. MIDDLETON AND ROBERT G. DRYSDALE ABSTRACT The test results for six full-scale concrete block walls subjected to uniformly distributed out-of-plane loading are reported. The walls had overall dimensions of 2.8x6.0 m. The effects of size and location of openings and of steel reinforcing were investigated. All walls were…
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  • THE BEHAVIOUR OF MASONRY IN HORIZONTAL FLEXURE
    STEPHEN J. LAWRENCE ABSTRACT The strength of masonry in out-of-plane horizontal flexure, with stresses parallel to the bed joints, is an important parameter in the design of walls for lateral loading. Stress distributions in this type of behaviour are complex and little understood, leading to simplified assumptions or empirical relationships…
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  • RESEARCH EVALUATION OF THE FLEXURAL TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY
    ROBERT D. THOMAS, PHILLIP J. SAMBLANET AND MARK B. HOGAN ABSTRACT Current allowable tensile stress value were established in the 1960's and were based on a limited amount of available test data. This paper describes the results of a testing program intended to update the existing database of flexural tensile…
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  • DEFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BLOCKWORK BEAMS
    SONGBO LI, A.N. FRIED AND J.J. ROBERTS ABSTRACT The results of a series of tests on reinforced concrete blockwork (RCB) beams carried out at the British Cement Association have been analyzed. Based on these test results and statistical analysis, the relationship between the stiffness of the beams and their deformation…
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  • A STUDY FOR BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH OF PERFORATED BRICK MASONRY WALLS SUPPORTED AND FRAME UNDER UNIFORM LOADING
    SHAOXI GONG AND CHENGXIA WU ABSTRACT The experimental results on six specimens of the perforated brick masonry walls supported on frames are given. The influence of height - span ratio Hw/Lo, beam-column rigid ratio of frame Kmb/Kmc and percentage of longitudinal bars of mean p=Aa/bho on the behaviour and strength…
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  • FRACTURE MECHANICS AND THE FUTURE STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY
    A. CORMEAU AND N.G. SHRIVE ABSTRACT The various strengths of masonry are currently determined from tests, with the results being specimen shape and size dependent. The strengths so determined therefore are not the fundamental material properties of the masonry, but some function thereof. Fracture mechanics approaches to the failure of…
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  • DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR DOUBLE WYTHE MASONRY WALLS
    KHALED M. SAKR AND VERNON V. NEIS ABSTRACT This paper describes a simplified, but comprehensive, analysis technique for determining load deflection diagrams for double wythe unreinforced masonry walls. The new method is simple to apply, requiring only minimal data input and modest computer hardware. The method was implemented on an…
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  • SEISMIC DESIGN OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY – A REVIEW OF THE AUSTRALIAN REQUIREMENTS
    ADRIAN W. PAGE ABSTRACT Australia is not in a recognized earthquake zone, but does have a history of small to medium sized intraplate earthquakes.  Unreinforced masonry is a commonly used form of construction, so that there is potential for damage to masonry structures from these events. A new earthquake loading…
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  • A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO “THE SHANGHAI DESIGN CODE FOR BUILDINGS OF HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK”
    ZHANG GUANFU, LIU YONGFENG AND LIU JIFEN ABSTRACT The application for hollow concrete blocks in the Shanghai area and an abstract of the "Design Code for Builidng of Hollow Concrete Blocks" are presented. [ult_buttons btn_title="Read Full Paper" btn_link="url:http%3A%2F%2Fcanadamasonrydesigncentre.com%2Fdownload%2F7th_symposium%2FG-33.pdf|title:Open%20Full%20PDF|target:%20_blank" btn_align="ubtn-center" btn_size="ubtn-normal" btn_title_color="#aa0005" btn_bg_color="#ededed" btn_hover="ubtn-center-dg-bg" btn_anim_effect="ulta-grow" icon_size="32" btn_icon_pos="ubtn-sep-icon-at-left" btn_border_size="1" btn_radius="3" btn_shadow_size="5" btn_shadow_click="enable"…
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  • BENEFITS OF USING THE NEW CANADIAN MASONRY LIMIT STATES DESIGN STANDARD
    E.A. GAZZOLA, R.G. DRYSDALE, V. ANTONIK AND R MCGRATH ABSTRACT With the recent approval of CSA Standard S304.1-1995 Masonry Design for Buildings, masonry joints the other major structural materials in Canada which are based on the Limit States Design philosophy. The use of this new design standard will result in…
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  • PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY ELEMENTS UNDER FIRE AND SHELLING DURING THE GULF WAR
    SAMI M. FEREIG, HUSAIN AL-KHAIAT AND JAMAL AL-DUAIJ ABSTRACT In august 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait and occupied the country for seven months. During this time many buildings were subjected to direct shelling or fire, or both causing extensive damage. Several case studies are presented to show the performance of masonry…
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  • PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY IN HIGH HUMIDITY ENVIRONMENTS
    DAVID L. SCOTT ABSTRACT Case studies are presented to establish why some conventional masonry wall systems fail when exposed to high humidity in cold climate. The condition of masonry, air/vapour barriers and thermal insulation after extended exposure is discussed followed by a brief analysis of the failures. Changes to design,…
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  • FREEZE-THAW DURABILITY OF MORTARS IN HISTORIC MASONRY: TEST METHODOLOGIES
    M.L. THOMSON, G.T. SUTER AND L. FONTAINE ABSTRACT Freeze-thaw durability of mortars was evaluated using a unidirectional freeze-thaw cycling cabinet. Mortars were first evaluated in prism specimens then as mortar bedded in stone masonry walls. Failure was determined by visual assessment and by measurement of expansion. Three freeze-thaw temperature cycles…
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  • MOISTURE CONDITIONS ACROSS STONE MASONRY WALL – A CASE STUDY
    H. KELLER, P.ENG AND S. LAVIOLETTE, P.ENG. ABSTRACT The paper deals with the results of a 12-month monitoring program of massive sandstone masonry walls in a heritage structure in Ottawa. Measurements included temperature, moisture, relative humidity and pressure across the exterior wall system and windows. The purpose of this monitoring…
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  • EXTERIOR WALL ASSEMBLIES IN EXTREME CLIMATES
    M.A. Hatzinikolas, P.Eng ABSTRACT Exterior wall assemblies in severe environments pose special problems and require unique solutions. The assemblies are affected by the speed of construction, the choice of structural systems, the use and occupancy and other factors such as tolerances and moisture movements. The choice of system and the…
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  • LIMIT STATES DESIGN OF MODULAR CONCRETE BLOCK RETAINING WALLS
    A.J. Valsangkar, J.L. Dawe and C.K. Seah ABSTRACT Existing manuals for the design of geosynthetic- reinforced soil retaining walls with segmental concrete facing are based on the working stress design method. Recently, in Canada the limit states design approach has been introduced in geotechnical engineering. The second and third editions…
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  • CREEP EFFECTS ON UNREINFORCED SLENDER CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS
    AYMAN A. MAKSOUD AND ROBERT G. DRYSDALE ABSTRACT The capacities of slender concrete block walls under sustained eccentric axial loads were investigated using the finite element method. The finite element model accounts for the inelastic material responses, P-o effects, and time dependent (creep) strains. Creep functions developed from test data…
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  • BEHAVIOR OF INTERLOCKING MORTARLESS MASONRY UNDER COMPRESSIVE LOADS
    Kang-Ho Oh, Harry G. Harris and Ahmad A. Hamid ABSTRACT The behavior of interlocking mortarless masonry under compressive loads is studied by directly comparing experimental and analytical results. The techniques used to obtain all the input data necessary for a nonlinear FEM modeling technique are described. A three dimensional nonlinear…
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  • NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TALL MASONRY CAVITY WALLS TESTED UNDER ECCENTRIC LOADING
    R. WANG, A.E. ELWI, AND HATZINIKOLAS ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the second phase of an ongoing investigation into the behaviour of cavity masonry walls constructed with concrete block, brick veneer and shear connectors. In the first phase, a test program has been conducted on tall cavity walls…
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  • A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR MASONRY WITH INTERNAL VARIABLES
    FRANCESCO MAROTTI DE SCIARRA AND MICHELA MONACO ABSTRACT Three different constitutive models for the overall behaviour of masonry are presented. The no-tension model, the elastoplastic no tension one and the damage behaviour coupled with elastoplasticity are cast in the unitary framework of the generalized standard material theory. [ult_buttons btn_title="Read Full…
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  • RELIABILITY OF DIAGONAL TEST
    GIORGIO FRUNZIO, VINCENZO MALLARDO AND MICHELA MONACO ABSTRACT Although masonry has been widely used as building material for centuries, its behaviour is not still not completely understood. Mechanical models developed for homogeneous elastic continua cannot be suitable for such a particular material. To develop a simple mathematical model, a large…
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  • RESPONSE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY SHEAR WALLS
    K.S. IBRAHIM AND G.T. SUTER ABSTRACT Analytical and experimentally based models are needed to predict the behaviour of reinforced masonry buildings under different complex states of stress and to assess the behavioral seismic characteristics of masonry buildings undergoing progressive failure up to the ultimate stage. As part of an experimental…
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  • CRITERIA OF STABILITY FOR BUILDING SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE MOTION AND APPLICATION
    WenXin Qin and ZhenFang Yuan ABSTRACT In this paper the Liapunov stability of motion theory is introduced to the structural dynamic analysis. The analytic procedure of stability for nonlinear seismic analysis is presented. The criterion of stability is established for the seismic analysis of SDOF system. Based on the method…
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  • THREE-DIMESIONAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF 18 STOREY STEEL-MASONRY COMPOSITE HERITAGE BUILDING
    P.GUO, P. DI LULLO AND B. CHARNISH ABSTRACT The three dimensional dynamic analysis of a 18 storey steel masonry composite downtown heritage building is described. This analysis is used as an example to discuss numerical modelling of masonry and to demonstrate how the analysis and design of complex structures can…
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  • EFFECT OF OPENINGS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED MASONRY SHEAR WALLS USING NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
    GOUDA GHANEM ABSTRACT In order to implement reinforced masonry as a cost-efficient building in Egypt, Design Code and Standard Specification for masonry should be developed. This requires long-term research effort in this area to provide an adequate data base for the design procedures this paper is a contribution to that…
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  • INPLANE DISTORTION OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY PANELS INFILLING RC FRAMES
    DUKIZE, A. AND DAWE, J.L. ABSTRACT Since excessive and uncontrolled lateral displacements can create severe structural damage in high-rise buildings, lateral drifts have been codified in various building codes. The present study investigates the inplane distortion of reinforced concrete (RC) frames infilled with unreinforced brick masonry panels subjected to inplane…
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  • TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS ON BRICK VENEER
    A.H. PAUL MAURENBRECHER AND SAMIR E. CHIDIAC ABSTRACT Major environmental factors in the durability of exterior walls are temperature and moisture. Temperature is the factor examines in this study. Thermal movements can lead to induced stresses that may be high enough to cause cracking. Temperature cycling about the freezing point…
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  • THE DUAL CHALLENGE OF AIR LEAKAGE AND THERMAL EFFICIENCY – THE 1 STEP SOLUTION
    ARTHUR P. PAZIA ABSTRACT In masonry cavity walls, sprayed polyethylene foam (SPF) provides special benefits as an air barrier: permanence, resistance to air flow, structural soundness and continuity. SPF also delivers distinctive advantages as thermal insulation. These advantages include the elimination of convective air flow, the control of moisture transfer…
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  • THE THERMAL MASS ADVANTAGE OF MASONRY IN ENERGY CODES AND STANDARDS
    J.W. GAJDA AND M.G. VAN GEEM ABSTRACT The U.S. energy Policy Act of 1992 mandated that the local energy codes for commercial buildings meet or exceed the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. This, in effect, made ASHRAE 90.1 requirements the U.S. energy baseline. Canada's energy  code is also influenced by…
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  • CONSIDERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL ENERGY CODE FOR CANADA
    JOHN C. HAYSOM, MICHAEL LACROIZ, MICHAEL C. SWINTON ABSTRACT The paper describes the fundamental considerations that are shaping the two new energy codes that will be published by the National Research Council in 1996 - the National Energy Code for Houses and the National Energy Code for Buildings. It begins…
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  • MASONRY PROVISIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ASHRAE/IES STANDARD 90.1
    MARIBETH S. BRADFIELD, P.E. ABSTRACT This paper reviews the impact of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Energy efficiency standard on new, non-residential, masonry buildings. Standard 90.1 represents an advance in the comprehensiveness of energy standards. For example, the standard included…
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  • LATERAL LOAD RESISTANCE OF DRY-STACK MASONRY WITHOUT INFILL
    WILLIAM ('BILL') B CRANSTON ABSTRACT A series of deformation controlled tests on laterally loaded dry-stack walls without infill is described. Contrary to some expectations, the walls resisted substantial loads, and returned almost to their original position on unloading. Individual block movements in x, y and z directions were measured to…
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  • CEMENT BONDED WOOD PARTICLE BLOCKS FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE BONDED WALL SYSTEMS
    M.M. KHATTAB, R.G. DRYSDALE AND H.J. RERUP ABSTRACT An experimental program was conducted to investigate the structural behavior of a dry stacked surface bonded Durisol block wall system. The Durisol block is composed of cement bonded wood particles. Included in the tests were fourteen three-course prisms tested under concentric and…
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  • STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERLOCKING DRY-STACKED CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY
    ROBERT G. DRYSDALE AND PING GUO ABSTRACT A dry-stacking, interlocking type of block, known by the trade name of sparlock, was tested to determine loadbearing properties for axial compression and out-of-plane bending about both the horizontal and vertical axes. Prisms and small walls were built as plain masonry, surface bonded…
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  • DEVELOPMENT OF DRY STACKED CLAY MASONRY WALL SYSTEMS
    W. MARK MCGINLEY ABSTRACT In the past few years there has been increased interest in dry stacked masonry wall systems since, potentially, dry stacked systems offer a significant cost savings over conventional masonry systems. An experimental investigation designed to evaluate the viability of producing an extruded clay masonry unit for…
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  • STRENGTH OF MASONRY BUILT WITH THEORY CONCRETE BLOCK SYSTEM
    AHMAD A. HAMID AND GOUDA M. GHANEM ABSTRACT The " Theory" concrete block sysmte utilizes recessed channels in the face shells and webs of the units to provide mechanical interlocking at the unit-mortar interfaces and to accommodate horizontal reinforcement. This new system with the reinforcing rods provides an attractive alternative…
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  • LATERAL RESPONSE OF UNREINFORCED SOLID MASONRY SHEAR WALLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
    ABDEL SAYEM S. MAHMOUD, AHMAD A. HAMID AND SHERIF ABO EL MAGD ABSTRACT There is a lack of understanding of the behavior of unreinforced masonry shear walls. This is attributed to the limited use of this type of construction in recent years especially in North America. In developing countries, however,…
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  • NONLINEAR SEISMIC RESPONSE AND COLLAPSE ANALYSIS OF A STAGGERED FLOOR BRICK BUILDING WITH RC MEMBERS
    ZHEN FANG YUAN AND WEN XIN QIN ABSTRACT The staggered floor brick residential building confined by reinforced concrete members is a new type of building structure. We designed a nine floor residential brick building with six staggered floors confined by reinforced concrete beams and columns in 1993, and the building…
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  • DAMAGE TO MASONRY BUILDINGS FROM THE 1995 HANSHIN-AWAJI (KOKE, JAPAN) EARTHQUAKE – PRELIMINARY REPORT
    MICHAEL BRUNEAU INTRODUCTION Normally, one would not associate "masonry construction" with "Japan". Indeed, the author has frequently heard from Japanese colleagues that masonry construction does not exist in Japan. While this may be true in some aspects, what has been forgotten is the existence of a few decades , at…
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  • MASONRY DURABILITY
    G.T. SUTER ABSTRACT The paper presents an overview of the key factors which must be controlled to achieve adequate masonry durability. These factors include material selection, design detailing appropiate to a project's environmental loading, workmanlike construction, and periodic maintenance. The paper makes a case for the proper durability design of…
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  • RESTORATION OF HERITAGE MASONRY BUILDINGS
    Binda L. ABSTRACT Restoration of heritage masonry buildings has been in the past until the sixties a job for few experts. The damage to historic buildings due to the last earthquakes, their decay due to lack of maintenance and aging have now involved in the design for restoration a great…
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  • MASONRY DESIGN IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS
    GARY C. HART ABSTRACT The design of masonry structures in high seismic areas requires a special design approach that directly incorporates strength and ductility considerations. This paper addresses both of these as well as the description of the earthquake ground motion. [ult_buttons btn_title="Read Full Paper" btn_link="url:http%3A%2F%2Fcanadamasonrydesigncentre.com%2Fdownload%2F7th_symposium%2FG-1.pdf|title:Open%20Full%20PDF|target:%20_blank" btn_align="ubtn-center" btn_size="ubtn-normal" btn_title_color="#aa0005" btn_bg_color="#ededed"…
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